The country declared its independence in 1945. Christian Leitz. The Empire of Vietnam was a short-lived Japanese puppet state that lasted from 11 March to 23 August 1945. In an effort to appease the Fascist elements within the country and obtain German protection, King Carol II appointed the General Ion Antonescu as Prime Minister on September 6, 1940. hdl:2027/heb.00626. Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Finland were severed on 1 August 1941, after the British bombed German forces in the Finnish village and port of Petsamo. Thousands of volunteers fought and many died as part of the German Army on the Eastern Front. Define axis powers . Hitler had advocated an alliance between Germany and Italy since the 1920s. As the Japanese home islands lacked natural resources needed for growth, Japan planned to establish hegemony in Asia and become self-sufficient by acquiring territories with abundant natural resources. Most of the country was held by Italian forces, but strategic locations (Central Macedonia, the islands of the northeastern Aegean, most of Crete, and parts of Attica) were held by the Germans, who seized most of the country's economic assets and effectively controlled the collaborationist government. In retaliation, the Soviet Union launched a major air offensive against Finnish airfields and towns, which resulted in a Finnish declaration of war against the Soviet Union on 25 June 1941. However, strong German influence began to be asserted soon after the NDH was founded.  Protests by the League of Nations, especially the British, who had interests in that area, led to no serious action, although The League did try to enforce economic sanctions upon Italy, but to no avail. Mengjiang vanished in 1945 following Japan's defeat in World War II. Mengjiang was a Japanese puppet state in Inner Mongolia.  Italy did not mobilize its economy; its GNP committed to the war effort remained at prewar levels. The US destroyer Reuben James was torpedoed and sunk by the submarine U-552 on 31 October 1941. British and Free French forces attacked later Syria and Lebanon in June–July 1941, and in 1942 Allied forces took over French Madagascar. The Nanjing Government had no real power; its main role was to act as a propaganda tool for the Japanese. , However at this time Mussolini stressed one important condition that Italy must pursue in an alliance with Germany: that Italy "must ... tow them, not be towed by them". After fierce fighting, Budapest was taken by the Soviets. Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II…. The Japanese entered Cambodia in mid-1941, but allowed Vichy French officials to remain in administrative posts. They organized an Albanian government, police, and military in collaboration with the Balli Kombëtar. Some countries colluded with Germany, Italy, and Japan without signing either the Anti-Comintern Pact or the Tripartite Pact. : Los Estados Unidos jugaron un papel central en la derrota de los Poderes del Eje, lo que significa que las relaciones entre Berlín y Washington D.C. fueron inevitablemente terribles.  Initially Japan's attitude towards Italy's proposal was generally dismissive, viewing a German–Japanese alliance against the Soviet Union as imperative while regarding an Italo-Japanese alliance as secondary, as Japan anticipated that an Italo-Japanese alliance would antagonize Britain that had condemned Italy's invasion of Ethiopia.  Grandi's attempts to maintain a diplomatic balance between France and Germany were challenged in 1932 by pressure from the French, who had begun to prepare an alliance with Britain and the United States against the threat of a revanchist Germany. The Yugoslav authorities refused to return Nedić to United States custody. We Asked, You Answered.  In response to Göring's visit with Mussolini, Dollfuss immediately went to Italy to counter any German diplomatic headway. In June 1944, Phibun was overthrown in a coup d'état.  This threat of retaliation by Japan to the total trade embargo by the United States was known by the American government, including American Secretary of State Cordell Hull who was negotiating with the Japanese to avoid a war, fearing that the total embargo would pre-empt a Japanese attack on the Dutch East Indies. On 25 May 1941, the Germans stepped up offensive operations in the Middle East. Italy justified its intervention against Greece in October 1940 on the allegation that Greece was being used by Britain against Italy, Mussolini informed this to Hitler, saying: "Greece is one of the main points of English maritime strategy in the Mediterranean". The following list of German client states includes only those entities that were officially[who?] During the Anglo-Iraqi War of May 1941, Vichy France allowed Germany and Italy to use air bases in the French mandate of Syria to support the Iraqi revolt. More and more colonies abandoned Vichy, joining the Free French territories of French Equatorial Africa, Polynesia, New Caledonia and others who had sided with de Gaulle from the start. The Empire of Japan, a constitutional monarchy with Hirohito as its Emperor, was the principal Axis power in Asia and the Pacific.  Mussolini was worried about Nazi ambitions towards Austria, and indicated that at least in the short term he was committed to maintaining Austria as a sovereign state. Germany renounced the Versailles treaty and remilitarized the Rhineland in March 1936.   For example, writing in 1945, the American politician Clare Boothe Luce described Thailand as "undeniably an Axis country" during the war.. Politically and economically dominated by Italy from its creation in 1913, Albania was occupied by Italian military forces in 1939 as the Albanian king Zog l fled the country with his family. , On 23 October 1932, Mussolini declared support for a Four Power Directorate that included Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, to bring about an orderly treaty revision outside of what he considered the outmoded League of Nations. Anti-British sentiments were widespread in Iraq prior to 1941. An anime and web comic that has countries represented by people, the majority which are good looking men. Following the invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union, and the German conquest of France and the Low Countries, Romania found itself increasingly isolated; meanwhile, pro-German and pro-Fascist elements began to grow. The Kingdom of Bulgaria was ruled by Тsar Boris III when it signed the Tripartite Pact on 1 March 1941. By 1943, the tide began to turn. “Pagan” vs. “Wicca”: What Is The Difference? When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, Franco immediately offered to form a unit of military volunteers to join the invasion. To isolate the US forces stationed in the Philippines and to reduce US naval power, the Imperial General Headquarters ordered an attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on 7 December 1941. First, on October 15, 1936 Germany and Italy signed a friendship treaty that formed the Rome-German Axis. , The burden of the war upon participating countries has been measured through the percentage of gross national product (GNP) devoted to military expenditures. Franz von Papen, the German foreign minister, visited Ankara with hopes of persuading Turkey to join the Axis powers. Both the LVF and the Division Charlemagne fought on the eastern front.  The Soviet Union in turn at this time competed with Germany for influence in Poland. The Poles fully annexed them following the Munich Agreement. Despite this, the Paris Peace Treaty treated Bulgaria as one of the defeated countries. a central line that bisects a two-dimensional body or figure. The League of Nations later declared in 1934 that Manchuria lawfully remained a part of China. As a result of the internal discord and economic downturn of the 1920s, militaristic elements set Japan on a path of expansionism. Other countries who recognized the State were the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Vatican City. Peter D. Stachura. The German government also justified its actions by claiming that Germany inevitab…  13 warships escaped to Sweden and formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile. Libya was an Italian colony existing from 1912 to 1943.  As tensions between Italy and France grew, Hitler made a major speech on 30 January 1939 in which he promised German military support in the case of an unprovoked war against Italy. In propaganda broadcasts from Berlin, the Mufti continued to call on Arabs to rise up against the British and aid German and Italian forces. It was somewhat successful in preventing secessionist movements like the Vlach "Roman Legion" from establishing themselves. According to Wilhelm Filderman at least 150,000 Jews of  Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy. Hungary was reorganized following Horthy's abdication in December 1944 into a totalitarian regime called the Government of National Unity, led by Ferenc Szálasi.  Spain invaded and occupied the Tangier International Zone, maintaining its occupation until 1945. Pavelić led a delegation to Rome and offered the crown of the NDH to an Italian prince of the House of Savoy, who was crowned Tomislav II, King of Croatia, Prince of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Voivode of Dalmatia, Tuzla and Knin, Prince of Cisterna and of Belriguardo, Marquess of Voghera, and Count of Ponderano. An axis is a straight line, sometimes seen, sometimes not, that is important in mathematics, art, science and our survival. These governments were merged into the Reorganized National Government of China at Nanjing on 29 March 1940. With the European powers focused on the war in Europe, Japan sought to acquire their colonies. Why We Call the Axis Powers the Axis Powers On this day in 1936, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini declared an axis between Berlin and Rome, coining a … The Axis powers (, Sujikukoku, ), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces. … Wang Jingwei's government signed the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1941 but never signed the Tripartite Pact.  Finland did sign the revived Anti-Comintern Pact of November 1941. On 21 December 1941, a military alliance with Japan was signed and on 25 January 1942, Sang Phathanothai read over the radio Thailand's formal declaration of war on the United Kingdom and the United States. The Inner Mongolians had several grievances against the central Chinese government in Nanking, including their policy of allowing unlimited migration of Han Chinese to the region. Finland took part in the Siege of Leningrad. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, the Nazi regime's stance towards an independent, territorially-reduced Russia was affected by pressure beginning in 1942 from the German Army on Hitler to endorse a Russian army led by Andrey Vlasov.  Nearly one-quarter of Germany's GNP was committed to the war effort in 1939, and this rose to three-quarters of GNP in 1944, prior to the collapse of the economy. Editorial credit: Everett Historical / Shutterstock.com.  Hitler had agreed that Germany would almost certainly declare war when the Japanese first informed him of their intention to go to war with the United States on 17 November 1941. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary The countries fighting them were called the Allies. Hitler issued Order 30: "The Arab Freedom Movement in the Middle East is our natural ally against England. The Italian-backed Montenegrin nationalist Sekula Drljević and his followers attempted to create a Montenegrin state. The Second World War, Volume III, The Grand Alliance. However, on 10 July 1941, Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim issued an Order of the Day that contained a formulation understood internationally as a Finnish territorial interest in Russian Karelia. Declarations of neutrality must be ignored".  Americans played key roles in financing and supplying the Allies, in the strategic bombardment of Germany, and in the final invasion of the European continent. Upon coming to power, Pavelić formed the Croatian Home Guard (Hrvatsko domobranstvo) as the official military force of the NDH. Although under the firm control of the Japanese Imperial Army, which occupied its territory, Prince Demchugdongrub had his own independent army. Montenegro then came under full direct Italian control. Albanians in the Italian army joined the guerrilla forces. His first diplomatic visitor was Gömbös. P. 78. The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was created from the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. The Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939, which started the Winter War. The United States played a central role in the defeat of the Axis Powers, meaning relations between Berlin and Washington, D.C. were inevitably terrible. Originally based around the Axis Powers in WW2, it then expanded and now just pokes fun at national stereotypes and historical events. The liberation of France in 1944, bringing Charles de Gaulle to power, meant the end of the alliance between Japan and the Vichy French administration in Indochina. Germans and Finns did work closely together during Operation Silver Fox, a joint offensive against Murmansk. This turned into a disaster for the citizens of Sofia and other major Bulgarian cities, which were heavily bombed by the Allies in the winter of 1943–1944.  As a result, Italian and Japanese mobilization remained low, even by 1943. The regime enjoyed support amongst radical Croatian nationalists. The Japanese calls for an "Asia for the Asiatics" won over many Cambodian nationalists. Japan sought to avoid war with the Soviet Union by signing a non-aggression pact with it in 1941. 10. In 1943 the Milice, a paramilitary force which had been founded by Vichy, was subordinated to the Germans and assisted them in rounding up opponents and Jews, as well as fighting the French Resistance. In 1939 the Soviet Union considered forming an alliance with either Britain and France or with GermanyWhen negotiations with Britain and France failed, they turned to Germany and signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in August 1939. The term was coined in 1936 by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, p.234; Kershaw, Ian. Relations between Germany and Italy recovered due to Hitler's support of Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, while other countries condemned the invasion and advocated sanctions against Italy. Some of these governments declared themselves to be neutral in the conflict with the allies, or never concluded any formal alliance with the Axis powers, but their effective control by the Axis powers rendered them in reality an extension of it and hence part of it. The term was coined in 1936 by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.  Following the "Greer incident" on 4 September 1941, when the German U-boat U-652 fired on the American destroyer Greer, Roosevelt confirmed that all US ships escorting convoys had been ordered to "shoot on sight" at all Axis ships and submarines in the Atlantic. Only hours after the invasion, Prime Minister Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram ordered the cessation of resistance against the Japanese. , During the Weimar Republic, the German government did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, and various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies.  As a result of Italy's economic difficulties its soldiers were poorly paid, often being poorly equipped and poorly supplied, and animosity arose between soldiers and class-conscious officers; these contributed to low morale amongst Italian soldiers. The Danish protectorate government lasted until 29 August 1943, when the cabinet resigned after the regularly scheduled and largely free election concluding the Folketing's current term.  There was great concern in the Japanese government that such a pact with Germany could disrupt Japan's relations with Britain, endangering years of a beneficial Anglo-Japanese accord, that had allowed Japan to ascend in the international community in the first place. This resulted in Finland being drawn closer to Germany, first with the intent of enlisting German support as a counterweight to thwart continuing Soviet pressure, and later to help regain lost territories. On 2 September 1944, as the Red Army approached the Bulgarian border, a new Bulgarian government came to power and sought peace with the Allies, expelled the few remaining German troops, and declared neutrality. German propaganda trumpeted these attacks as an absolute betrayal of the French people by their former allies.  On 7 December 1941 Japan declared war on the United States and the British Empire. The new civilian government under Khuang Aphaiwong attempted to aid the resistance while maintaining cordial relations with the Japanese. Axis powers Definition from Encyclopedia Dictionaries & Glossaries.  At the same time Germany was preparing for a war with Poland and was secretly preparing the German minority in Poland for a war. After this, the Bulgarian army (as part of the Red Army's 3rd Ukrainian Front) fought the Germans in Yugoslavia and Hungary, sustaining numerous casualties. The government had a strained relationship with the Japanese from the beginning.  The entrance of German troops in Romania determined Italian dictator Benito Mussolini to launch an invasion of Greece, starting the Greco-Italian War. Hungarian troops, like their Axis counterparts, were involved in numerous actions against the Soviets.  Italy had concerns over a Germany which included Austria laying land claims to German-populated territories of the South Tyrol (also known as Alto-Adige) within Italy, which bordered Austria on the Brenner Pass. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? Later in 1939, Australia would declare war on the AXIS powers. It played a largely marginal role in the battle, and suffered serious casualties and had to withdraw with the rest of Japanese forces after the siege of Imphal was broken. The term "axis" was first applied to the Italo-German relationship by the Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini in September 1923, when he wrote in the preface to Roberto Suster's Germania Repubblica that "there is no doubt that in this moment the axis of European history passes through Berlin" (non v'ha dubbio che in questo momento l'asse della storia europea passa per Berlino).  Von Ribbentrop expanded on Oshima's proposal by advocating that the alliance be based in a political context of a pact to oppose the Comintern. His National Socialist Movement formed a cabinet assisting the German administration, but was never recognized as a real Dutch government. 2. , Among the three major Axis powers, Japan had the lowest per capita income, while Germany and Italy had an income level comparable to the United Kingdom. Europe, 1890–1945. On 10 May 1942, the Thai Phayap Army entered Burma's eastern Shan State, which had been claimed by Siamese kingdoms. The "Rome–Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in 1939 under the so-called "Pact of Steel", with the Tripartite Pact of 1940 leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany, Italy and Japan. The country drew closer to Germany and Italy largely because of a shared desire to revise the peace settlements made after World War I. The Germans did not exert heavy control over Albania's administration, but instead attempted to gain popular appeal by giving their political partners what they wanted. This precipitated Japanese withdrawal from the League. P. 134. The Axis powers invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. Mussolini and Fascism. After the Siege of Odessa, the city became the capital of the Governorate. , In June 1934, Hitler and Mussolini met for the first time, in Venice. Wang's death dispelled what little legitimacy the regime had.  Despite Finnish resistance, a peace treaty was signed in March 1940, wherein Finland ceded some key territory to the Soviet Union, including the Karelian Isthmus, containing Finland's second-largest city, Viipuri, and the critical defensive structure of the Mannerheim Line. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The Axis Powers were formed during World War II and included the Japan, Germany, and Italy.  The resistance movement was active in sabotage and issuing underground newspapers and blacklists of collaborators. Christian Leitz. These and other export goods transported through Soviet and occupied Polish territories allowed Germany to circumvent the British naval blockade. In Africa the Vichy regime was permitted to maintain 127,000. The Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India was a state that was recognized by nine Axis governments, and accepted as part of the axis by the Japanese..  Contentious negotiations between the Italian foreign minister, Galeazzo Ciano, and the German ambassador, Ulrich von Hassell, resulted in a Nineteen-Point Protocol, signed by Ciano and his German counterpart, Konstantin von Neurath, in 1936. The following day approval of the new constitution by the Assembly effectively created the French State (l'État Français), replacing the French Republic with the government unofficially called "Vichy France," after the resort town of Vichy, where Pétain maintained his seat of government. Zeszyty Muzeum, 3. H. James Burgwyn. After Soviet offensives were fought to a standstill, Ryti's successor as president, Marshall Mannerheim, dismissed the agreement and opened secret negotiations with the Soviets, which resulted in a ceasefire on 4 September and the Moscow Armistice on 19 September 1944. They had to accept "protection by the Reich" and the stationing of German forces in exchange for nominal independence. However, the United States instituted an embargo against Japan in 1941 because of the continuing war in China. Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II 2. P. 82. Slovak troops fought on Germany's Eastern Front, furnishing Germany with two divisions totaling 80,000 men. Gömbös responded to Mussolini that as the Austrians primarily identified as Germans, the Anschluss of Austria to Germany was inevitable, and advised that it would be better for Italy to have a friendly Germany across the Brenner Pass than a hostile Germany bent on entering the Adriatic.  The French also maintained substantial garrisons at the French-mandated territory of Syria and Greater Lebanon, the French colony of Madagascar, and in French Somaliland.  Italian foreign minister Dino Grandi in the early 1930s stressed the importance of "decisive weight", involving Italy's relations between France and Germany, in which he recognized that Italy was not yet a major power, but perceived that Italy did have strong enough influence to alter the political situation in Europe by placing the weight of its support onto one side or another. He was proclaimed the Emperor of Manchukuo a year later. In 1941, the World War II Axis Powers occupied the Danube Banovina. Another Lao group, the Lao Sēri (Free Lao), received unofficial support from the Free Thai movement in the Isan region. He worked as an intermediary between Germany and Italy to lessen differences between the two countries to achieve such an alliance. Germany and Italy signed the Pact of Steel on May 22. These measures however did not prevent the Soviet Union from declaring war on Bulgaria on 5 September, and on 8 September the Red Army marched into the country, meeting no resistance. The alliance (in effect before and during World War II) of Nazi Germany, fascist Italy, imperial Japan and a few other countries, which opposed the Allied Powers.. Political instability plagued the country until Miklós Horthy, a Hungarian nobleman and Austro-Hungarian naval officer, became regent in 1920. Thailand also returned the portions of British Burma and French Indochina that had been annexed. Germany, Italy, and Japan, which were allied before and during World War II. Although Hungary did not initially participate in the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Hungary and the Soviet Union became belligerents on 27 June 1941. The Allies and the Axis Two sets of countries fought World War II.  The conflict threatened Germany's iron-ore supplies and offered the prospect of Allied interference in the region. When the King of Italy ousted Mussolini from power and Italy capitulated, the NDH became completely under German influence.  In ideological terms, the Axis described their goals as breaking the hegemony of the plutocratic Western powers and defending civilization from communism. H. James Burgwyn. Less than two days later, after demonstrations in the streets of Belgrade, Prince Paul and the government were removed from office by a coup d'état. On 1 September, barely a week after the pact had been signed, Germany invaded Poland. The border with Poland was shifted back to the pre-war state. P. 76. An estimated 120,000 people were interned in German-run concentration camps in Nedić's Serbia between 1941 and 1944. When Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis. , By early 1940, Italy was still a non-belligerent, and Mussolini communicated to Hitler that Italy was not prepared to intervene soon. Some of his supporters went to northwestern Cambodia, which had been under Thai control since the French-Thai War of 1940, where they banded together as one faction in the Khmer Issarak movement, originally formed with Thai encouragement in the 1940s. The Soviets pushed further west, retaking Ukraine and eventually launching an unsuccessful invasion of eastern Romania in the spring of 1944. In 1941 Danish Nazis set up the Frikorps Danmark. Its jurisdiction was effectively limited to an ever-narrowing band of territory in central Hungary, around Budapest since by the time they took power the Red Army was already far inside the country.  Mussolini rapidly deployed several army divisions and air squadrons to the Brenner Pass, and warned that a German move against Austria would result in war between Germany and Italy.  Thus expansion was justified as an inevitable necessity to provide lebensraum ("living space") for the German nation and end the country's overpopulation within existing confined territory, and provide resources necessary to its people's well-being. Albania was the only European country occupied by the Axis powers that ended World War II with a larger Jewish population than before the war. , Hitler in 1941 described the outbreak of World War II as the fault of the intervention of Western powers against Germany during its war with Poland, describing it as the result of "the European and American warmongers". Italy intended to use the movement to destroy Yugoslavia, which would allow Italy to expand its power through the Adriatic. After the war, Tiso was executed and Slovakia once again became part of Czechoslovakia. ". Montenegro was an Italian dependency from 1941 to 1943 known as the Governorate of Montenegro that was under the control of an Italian military governor. In addition to the Croatian Home Guard, Pavelić was also the supreme commander of the Ustaše militia, although all NDH military units were generally under the command of the German or Italian formations in their area of operations. This, combined with Western Allied landings in France and Italy, led to a three-front war that depleted Germany's armed forces and resulted in Germany's defeat in 1945.  On the other hand, American destroyers escorting convoys had been effectively intervening in the Battle of the Atlantic with German and Italian ships and submarines, and the immediate war declaration made the Second Happy Time possible for U-boats.  Poland rejected Germany's demands and Germany in response prepared a general mobilization on the morning of 30 August 1939. Those two regions, along with Cieszyn Silesia, had been disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia since 1918.  Finnish defenses prevented an all-out invasion, resulting in an interim peace, but Finland was forced to cede strategically important border areas near Leningrad. , Under Antonescu Romania was fascist dictatorship and a totalitarian state. Arrows show planned movements to an agreed demarcation line at 70° E, which was, however, never approximated. , The United States opposed the Japanese war in China, and recognized Chiang Kai-Shek's Nationalist Government as the legitimate government of China. , Meetings took place in Berlin in 1924 between Italian General Luigi Capello and prominent figures in the German military, such as von Seeckt and Erich Ludendorff, over military collaboration between Germany and Italy. But it has been decided.  The Falangists promoted the idea of supporting Spain's former colonies in fighting against American domination. The countries fighting them were called the Allies. 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